All posts by Vachhani Hospital

Don't Risk Your Health, Get Vaccinated

Don’t Risk Your Health, Get Vaccinated.

What are vaccines?

A vaccine (or immunization) is a way to build your body’s natural immunity to a disease before you get sick. This keeps you from getting and spreading the disease.


Why are vaccines necessary?

Vaccinations are an essential part of the family and public health. Why? Because vaccines help prevent contagious, dangerous, and deadly diseases. These include influenza, Hepatitis B, chickenpox, measles, polio, mumps, HPV, etc.

Some illnesses like strains of cold viruses are relatively mild. But some, like COVID-19, smallpox, or polio, can cause life-altering changes. Sometimes leading to death. That’s why preventing your body from contracting these illnesses is very important.


Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease is the last stage of long-term, chronic disease. This is when the kidneys are no longer able to support your body’s needs.

So, if you are someone who is diagnosed with any renal disease, kindly go through the list of the vaccines recommended by doctors.

  • Varicella vaccine
  • MMR
  • Influenza
  • Pneumococcal Vaccination
  • Hepatitis B


  1. Varicella vaccine

    Until the varicella vaccine was licensed in 1995, chickenpox infection was very common. Almost everyone had been infected as a child. Now a vaccine is available to prevent chickenpox. Two doses of the vaccine are recommended for children, teens, and nonimmune adults.Complications can happen from chickenpox. They are more common in adults and people with weak immune systems. Complications may include.

    • Secondary bacterial infections
    • Pneumonia (lung infections)
    • Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
    • Cerebellar ataxia (defective muscular coordination)
    • Transverse myelitis (inflammation along the spinal cord)
    • Reye syndrome. This is a serious condition marked by a group of symptoms that may affect all major systems or organs. Do not give aspirin to children with chickenpox. It increases the risk for Reye syndrome.
    • Death
  2. MMR Vaccine

    Measles can be prevented with the MMR vaccine. The vaccine protects against three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. MMR vaccine protects against four diseases: measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella (chickenpox). This vaccine is only licensed for use in children 12 months through 12 years of age.CDC recommends that children get one dose of MMRV vaccine at 12 through 15 months of age, and the second dose at 4 through 6 years of age. Children can receive the second dose of MMRV vaccine earlier than 4 through 6 years. This second dose of MMR vaccine can be given 3 months after the first dose.

    Children* Age 12-15 months Age 4-6 years
    Teenagers and adults with no evidence of immunity** As soon as possible N/A

    Benefits of MMR vaccine:

    1. Prevents measles: Measles is a very contagious disease caused by a virus. It spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
    2. It is safe and effective: Two doses of MMR vaccine are about 97% effective at preventing measles; one dose is about 93% effective.

    Two doses of MMR vaccine are 97% effective against measles and 88% effective against mumps.

  3. Influenza (Flu) vaccine

    Influenza (flu) vaccines (often called “flu shots”) are vaccines that protect against the four influenza viruses that research indicates are most common during the upcoming season. Most flu vaccines are “flu shots” given with a needle, usually in the arm, but they’re also is also a nasal spray flu vaccine.

    1. Who should get a flu vaccine?
      Everyone 6 months of age and older should get Influenza (flu) vaccine every season with rare exceptions. CDC’s Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has made this recommendation since the 2010-2011 flu season.
      Vaccination to prevent flu and its potentially serious complications is particularly important for people who are at higher risk of developing serious flu complications.
    2. Why should you get vaccinated for Influenza?
      Influenza (flu) vaccine effectiveness (VE) can vary. The protection provided by a flu vaccine varies from season to season and depends in part on the age and health status of the person getting the vaccine and the similarity or “match” between the viruses in the vaccine and those in circulation. During years when the flu vaccine match is good, it is possible to measure substantial benefits from flu vaccination in terms of preventing flu illness and complications. However, the benefits of flu vaccination will still vary, depending on the characteristics of the person being vaccinated (for example, their health and age), what influenza viruses are circulating that season, and, potentially, which type of flu vaccine was used.
  4. Pneumococcal Vaccination:

    Pneumonia is a severe form of acute lower respiratory tract infection. The lungs are made up of small sacs called alveoli, which fill with air when a healthy person breathes. When an individual has pneumonia, the alveoli are filled with pus and fluid, which makes breathing difficult and limits oxygen intake. Severe pneumonia or sinusitis can progress to bacteremia/sepsis or meningitis, which require antibiotic treatment and have high mortality rates. DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISEASES CAUSED BY PNEUMOCOCCUS
    Diseases caused by pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumonia) are a major public health problem worldwide. Diseases that are often caused by pneumococcus

    • Pneumonia: inflammation of the lungs;
    • Bacteremia/sepsis: bloodstream infection, with or without infection of secondary sites, e.g., meningitis;
    • Bacterial meningitis: infection of the membranes that cover and protect the spinal cord and brain;
    • Otitis media: Middle ear infection; and
    • Sinusitis, Bronchitis

    About 75% of invasive pneumococcal disease and 83% of pneumococcal meningitis occur in children aged <2 years, among which many cases occur in neonates and children under 6 months of age


    Preventing pneumococcal diseases, particularly pneumonia, in children is an essential component of a strategy to reduce child mortality. Immunization against Hib, pneumococcus, measles and whooping cough (pertussis) is the most effective way to prevent pneumonia. Adequate nutrition is the key to improving children’s natural defenses, starting with exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life. In addition to preventing pneumonia, it also helps reduce the length of the illness, if a child does become ill. Addressing environmental factors such as indoor air pollution (by providing affordable clean indoor stoves, for example) and encouraging good hygiene in crowded homes also reduces the number of children who fall ill with pneumonia.

  5. Hepatitis B

    It is a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. The virus, which is called hepatitis B virus (HBV), can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death.

    The Hepatitis B vaccine is available for all age groups. The hepatitis B vaccine is recommended for all infants, all children or adolescents younger than 19 years of age who have not been vaccinated, all adults aged 19 through 59 years, and adults age 60 years or older with risk factors for hepatitis B infection. Adults who are 60 years or older without known risk factors for hepatitis B may also receive the hepatitis B vaccine.

    If you have any concerns regarding vaccination or renal diseases in general, kindly reach out to us and the help you need.


Immunizations in patients with end-stage kidney disease – UpToDate

End-stage kidney disease: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccination | CDC

Chickenpox | Johns Hopkins Medicine

About Shingles (Herpes Zoster) | CDC

Read More
Children Nephrotic Syndrome

Children Nephrotic Syndrome

What is nephrotic syndrome in children?

Nephrotic syndrome is a condition that causes the kidneys to leak large amounts of proteins into the urine. Think of it as a colander with big holes. This can lead to many problems, including swelling of body tissues and a greater chance of catching infections.

  1. How common is nephrotic syndrome in children?
    Around 1 in every 50,000 children are diagnosed with the condition every year.It tends to be more common in families with a history of allergies or those of Asian background, although it’s unclear why.

When protein spills into the urine, this can cause:

  • Swelling
    • The low level of protein in the blood reduces the flow of water from the body tissues back into the blood vessels, leading to swelling.Swelling is usually first noticed around the eyes, then around the lower legs and the rest of the body.
  • Tiredness
    • Feeling fatigued and not having the energy to do regular activities. Any chronic illness can make one feel extremely tired.
  • Loss of appetite
    • Too much protein escaping into the urine leaves a lack of protein in the blood which can result in malnutrition and change your perception of certain foods.
  • Infections
    • Antibodies are a specialized group of proteins in the blood that help to fight infection. When these are lost, children are much more likely to get infections.
  • Urine changes
    • Occasionally, the high levels of protein being passed into the urine can cause it to become frothy. Some children with nephrotic syndrome may even pass less urine than usual during relapses.




What can we expect with early diagnosis and proper medication?

  1. 93% of children respond well to steroids
  2. 85% of children become disease-free during childhood
  3. Relapses are common: 74% of the children who respond will relapse within 5 months

Some essential vaccinations:

  • Children with nephrotic syndrome are advised to have pneumococcal vaccines.
  • Some children may also be recommended varicella. (chickenpox)


How do health care professionals diagnose nephrotic syndrome in children?

Nephrotic syndrome in children is diagnosed with

  • a medical and family history
  • a physical exam
  • urine tests, to look for excess urine proteins
  • blood tests, to test kidney function and to look for underlying diseases

Additional tests to identify the cause of nephrotic syndrome may include

Many children with nephrotic syndrome will not need a kidney biopsy. The test is usually reserved for children who have the complex disease, who have low kidney function, or who are 12 years old or older.


  1. What else should one know about nephrotic syndrome in children?
    Minimal change disease causes most cases of nephrotic syndrome in kids. Those who get prednisone usually respond well, and the problem goes away by the time they’re teens. In the meantime, kids might need to take medicines for a few months or more.
    Sometimes, a child will have a relapse. This means the nephrotic syndrome comes back after going away. In this case, treatment starts again until the child outgrows the condition or it improves on its own.
    The sooner treatment for the nephrotic condition starts, the better. If your child shows any signs of the condition, call your doctor so it can get checked out right away.



Nephrotic Syndrome in Children | NIDDK

Nephrotic Syndrome – Johns Hopkins All Children’s Hospital

Nephrotic Syndrome | Treatment, Diet, & Common Questions | Buoy

Read More

Common Urological Problems

According to the reports of the Urological Society of India, the disorders related to urology are more common in adults and older people as compared to the young generation. The urinary system plays a vital role in healthy body function. It helps in filtering all the wastage in the body while passing it through urine.

Urological diseases can affect women, men, and children of all ages. However, the severity can differ from one person to another.  Disorders related to the ureters, bladder, and urethra come under the category of urology. Various urological disorders include urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, stress incontinence, urinary tract infections, kidney stones, phimosis treatment, bladder stones, or benign prostate hyperplasia.  Read below to understand the most common urological diseases:

Urinary Incontinence

This is one of the most common urological problems. This condition can lead to leakage of urine at unwanted times. Incontinence is common among pre-schoolers. It’s usually the result of kids waiting until the last minute to go to the bathroom. Urinary incontinence, or daytime wetting, is more common than fecal incontinence, or soiling. Bladder or bowel is rarer among elementary and secondary students. Causes of incontinence include:

Overactive bladder constipation can result in urinaryor fiscal9I8I9 incontinence problems related to other conditions, such as diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, and spina bifida.

Children who leak urine when most of their classmates are dry may have a bladder control problem. Both daytime wetting and bedwetting are common and tend to fade away as children mature. In some cases, health conditions can lead to wetting.

Overactive Bladder

This disorder generally causes frequent urge to urinate or difficulty in controlling the urine which may result in leakage. At times, the urinary bladder muscles start contracting involuntarily, leading to cramps. Overactive bladder can be a result of bladder stones, older age, diabetes, or urinary tract infections.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

UTIs can be caused due to an infection in any part of the urinary system. UTI is a common infection in babies and children. It is more common in girls. It is estimated that 1 out of 10 girls will have will have had a UTI by the age of 16 and 1 out of 16 boys will have UTI by the age of 16 years.

1 out of 50 babies and young children will have a UTI by the age of 2 years.

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

This condition is also referred to as prostate gland enlargement. BPH is a common urological disorder that occurs in older men. This disorder can lead to discomforting symptoms such as blockage in the flow of urine, bladder infection, kidney-related problems, or urinary tract inflammation. BPH can also be a result of a family history associated with urological disorders.


Kidney and Ureteral Stones

In this urological condition, small stones occur in the kidney. These stones when stuck in the tubes connecting the kidney to the bladder are called ureteral stones. This urological condition can result in painful symptoms such as nausea, severe pain, fever, chills, blood in the urine, or vomiting.


Bladder Stonesladder stones. Such stones are usually a result of minerals that concentrated urine crystallize and form small crystals. The stones usually occur when one can not void the bladder. Bladder stones can lead to painful symptoms such as pain during urinating, lower abdominal pain, the frequent urge to urinate, bleeding in urine, or interrupted urine flow.


Phimosis is a condition in males in which the foreskin doesn’t pull back from the tip of the penis. Every boy is born with a tight foreskin. With age, the foreskin starts to retract and by the time they turn 3, this no longer remains a problem as the foreskin completely loosens up. This is a common problem in young boys which usually gets cured on its own. But in severe cases, when urination becomes difficult or pain is severe, phimosis treatment becomes essential.

Our Conclusion

The above-mentioned urological disorders are most common among people. These conditions can affect the quality of life, resulting in painful symptoms like difficulty in urinating, burning sensation while passing the urine, blood in the urine, pain in the genitals, itching, redness, frequent urge to urinate, or leakage of urine.

If you are experiencing any of these signs, it is highly advisable to consult an experienced urologist. The urologist will conduct a thorough diagnosis to detect the root cause of the urological disorder while advising the best-suited treatment to cure it.

Read More

Kidneys and its importance

What is Kidney?

Kidneys are a bean shaped organ, two in number located on either side of the spine. Each is about the size of a fist. Microscopically, they are made up of millions of small units called nephron. It is these nephrons which are responsible for filtration of blood and formation of urine by the kidneys.

How is urine formed and micturation happens?

Kidney receives blood through renal arteries and then filters them through nephrons, and thus the urine is formed. Hereafter, urine is passed into the two ureters ( each one arising from respective kidney) and finally into the urinary bladder. Urinary Bladder acts as a reservoir for urine, which on receiving signal from the brain releases the urine through a passage called urethra and thus, the act of micturation ( passage of urine) takes place.

As you can see that simple act of passing urine, actually takes place with help of a complex system of many interconnected organs which are working round the clock so as to keep our body fluids balanced.

What are the functions of kidney ?

Kidney as an organ has utmost importance in removing waste products from our body, along with balancing of body fluids. These two functions are of high significance as they are responsible to maintain homeostasis of our body.

However, kidney role does not end there, it is imperative for many other functions.

Our blood pressure is majorly regulated by kidneys, thus kidney diseases often present with hypertension.

It has role in maintaining our hemoglobin, as it produces EPO (erythropoietin ) which helps in RBC production.

Kidney helps in maintaining bone health and keeps calcium balance, and is thus very important in growth of children.

Aren’t kidney problems uncommon in children?

Kidney disease is a global public health problem that affects more than 750 million persons worldwide.The burden of kidney disease varies substantially across the world, and evidence suggests that its incidence may be much more than reported in developing countries like India due to lack of data accuracy.

Amongst a huge burden of kidney diseases in India, pediatric kidney diseases are often ignored and pediatric patients, specific needs are time and again overlooked.

As reported by various centers, about 10 %- 12% admission in pediatric department are due to kidney related diseases. However, this does not reflect true numbers, as majority of pediatric patients are still treated by adult nephrologists.

What are the symptoms of kidney disease?

Unfortunately, most of the kidney diseases do silent damage and seldom, we find overt symptoms in all the cases. Most of the patients are not aware, and by the time they are diagnosed they have already reached the stage of kidney failure.

Some of the common signs and symptoms which a one can recognize are blood in urine, swelling over eyes or feet, burning micturation , decreased urine, urinary incontinence , bed wetting .

Nevertheless, there always subtle signs and symptoms which may be noticed either by parents or general practitioner such as anemia, poor growth and development, short stature ,hypertension , urinary tract infections ( especially if recurrent)

What Can You Do?

Certain steps can be taken for early recognition and treatment of kidney disease in children.

Regular health check up, yearly BP measurement, monitoring growth and development parameters at every visit.

Any of the above mentioned signs and symptoms, one should consult their doctor at the earliest and seek specialist help whenever necessary.

Following medication prescription accurately is another aspect which often overlooked. A regular follow up, monitoring and following prescription orders correctly are of extreme importance for good outcomes

One should not undermine the importance of healthy diet and regular exercise. Obesity significantly adds to morbidity of any medical condition thus, a well cooked home based diet as recommended by your doctor should be followed along with daily exercise routine.

Read More

Pediatric Nephrologist

Pediatric Nephrologist in Gujarat / Kids Kidney Specialist

Welcome to our Pediatric Nephrology Department, where we specialize in the diagnosis and management of various kidney-related problems in children. As trusted Pediatric Nephrologists in Gujarat, we are dedicated to providing exceptional care and treatment tailored specifically to our young patients. With a team of experienced and compassionate professionals, we offer comprehensive services to address conditions such as nephrotic syndrome, acute nephritic syndrome, hematuria, proteinuria, urinary tract infections, renal tubular disorders, renal stones, hypertension, urological problems, CAKUT, nocturnal enuresis, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and acute kidney injury.

Diagnosis and Management of the following kidney related problems

  • Nephrotic Syndrome including frequently relapsing and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome
  • Acute nephritic syndrome
  • Hematuria
  • Proteinuria
  • Urinary Tract Infection and its complications like VUR, bladder & bowel dysfunction
  • Renal Tubular Disorders
  • Renal Stones – evaluation and management
  • Hypertension – diagnosis , evaluation and Management
  • Urological Problems
  • Nocturnal enuresis
  • Management of CKD
  • Counselling for Antenatal Hydronephrosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury Management


  • Kidney Biopsy
  • Peritonal Dialysis
  • CAPD
  • Central Catheter Insertion
  • Hemodialysis

At Vachhani Hospital, our Pediatric Nephrologists in Gujarat are committed to the health and well-being of children with kidney-related concerns. With our expertise and state-of-the-art facilities, we provide accurate diagnoses, personalized treatment plans, and ongoing management for various pediatric kidney conditions. If your child requires the expertise of a Pediatric Nephrologist or a Kids Kidney Specialist in Gujarat, please reach out to us at 76210 12785. Our compassionate team is here to support your child’s kidney health and help them thrive. Contact us today to learn more about our Pediatric Nephrology services.

Read More